The location of each gene encoding the protein is what distinguishes H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras from one another. The H-ras gene is found on chromosome 11, the K-ras gene is found on chromosome 12, and the N-ras gene is found on chromosome . RAS proteins are a class of proteins that help...
The location of each gene encoding the protein is what distinguishes H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras from one another. The H-ras gene is found on chromosome 11, the K-ras gene is found on chromosome 12, and the N-ras gene is found on chromosome .
RAS proteins are a class of proteins that help activate the cell signalling transduction systems in charge of activating the cell cycle. To help the cell cycle advance, RAS proteins can stimulate the signalling chain that ultimately initiates transcription. As a result, H-, K-, and N-Ras function as GTPases.
The RAS family, which consists of the proto-oncogenes H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS, is one of the ones that has been the subject of the most research. The current investigation sought to determine the clinical significance of the three isoforms' mRNA levels in a sizable population of breast cancer patients who had been followed for an extended period of time.
The examination included 198 patients who had never been behaved toward before. K-RAS, H-RAS, and N-RAS mRNA grades were assessed utilizing microarray technology
While raised K-RAS statuses were correlated to nodal positivity and HER2-positivity, heightened H-RAS statuses were determined extensively more repeatedly in patients with greater and ER-positive tumors. Patients were more probable to be analyzed with triple-negativity and elevated grading when their N-RAS mRNA statuses were elevated. Patients were more likely to exhibit an elevated H-RAS when their K-RAS levels were high (p = 0.003). Individuals with high N-RAS expression had significantly lower overall survival (OS) compared to patients with low N-RAS after a median follow-up of 183 months (mean: 146.9 vs. 211.0 months; median: 169.3 vs. not achieved; p = 0.009).
The mean DFS was one hundred fifty .1 months for patients with elevated N-RAS corresponded to 227.7 months for those with downward N-RAS; the median DFS was not attained (p = 0.004) in patients with non-metastatic ailment at the time of tissue specimen. H-RAS and K-RAS expressions were not linked to DFS/OS. In the multivariable analysis, nodal status, HER2 positivity, and elevated N-RAS mRNA levels separately predicted reduced OS, whereas distant metastasis, HER2 positive, and reduced DFS were independently associated with reduced OS.
Elevated N-RAS mRNA levels indicate a poorer prognosis; conceivably, more research into the RAS signalling pathway would make it possible to find viable tailored therapeutic approaches. Further research into the RAS family is necessary given the link between high N-RAS levels and the most aggressive breast cancer subtype, the triple-negative phenotype, for which targeted therapies are still absent.
|Test Type||K-ras, H-ras, and N-ras|
K-ras, H-ras, and N-ras Isoforms (Pathology Test)
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