Know The Reason Behind Most of The Leukemia Cases By PCR! The Devil is A Fused Gene!

Dr Ravin Sharma
MD Radiologist

09 Feb 2024

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Know The Reason Behind Most of The Leukemia Cases By PCR! The Devil is A Fused Gene!

This content is Medically Reviewed by: Dr. Saagarika Sharma

Leukemia is the clinical term for Blood cancer, which involves uncontrollable growth in blood cells.

Concept of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is a specific type of Leukemia, which is caused due to defect in bone-marrow. In this type of Leukemia condition, patients have deposition or gathering of immature White Blood Cells (Promyelocytes) in the bone marrow, which hampers the standard functioning of White Blood Cells, Red Blood Corpuscles, and Platelets.

Highlighting the genetic cause of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL)

The foremost reason behind the Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) among people is two of their genes getting fused together.

There are two types of genes in our body; Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) and Retinoic Acid Receptor alpha (RARA).

This PML gene is present in arm of chromosome 15 and encodes Promyelocytic Leukemia protein, whereas, RARA gene is present in arm of chromosome 17, which encodes Retinoic Acid Receptor alpha protein.

Now, sometimes because of translocation activities of these two chromosomes (Chromosome 15 and chromosome 17), a specific type of fusion occurs in them. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia is caused by this fusion of two chromosomes.

When should you consult your physician?

If you are facing symptoms like these following since a prolonged time, then you should definitely go for a medical consultation:

For Free Consultation from the Doctor

Contact- Dr. Sonal Sharma, (MBBS, MD in Radiology)

Available:  24*7*365

Phone Number: +919212125996

Diagnosis concept

The messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA), coded by the fused genes PML:RARA, is amplified and quantified against control or the calibrator. The result indicates the severity by quantifying the fused gene.

The quantification is done by the following ways:

  • By Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
  • By Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (q-PCR) or Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)

Which technique is the best for diagnosis of PML: RARA?

Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (q-PCR) or Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is the best, most sensitive and most precise way to quantify the PML::RARA percentage in the sample with respect to the calibrator or the control gene. PCR compares and detect the level of fused genes, and elutes the result by diagnosing the presence of the disease.

Sample collection

Sample should be either

What is Quantitative-PCR?

Quantitative-PCR is a highly accurate and sensitive molecular biology technique to detect PML::RARA fused gene in patient’s sample, where we can detect any type of defect or changes in the standard gene structure, function and sequence.

Steps of Quantitative-PCR

  • Extraction: Sample bloods are treated with chemicals to have extracted or separated gene from them.
  • Performing Polymerase Chain Reaction: Denaturation, Annealing, Extension or Amplification of the targeted RNA from fused PML::RARA (of patient’s blood) and calibrator gene.
  • Repetition of the cycle: Total number of cycle for the process will be 40.
  • Time of report: The report of diagnosis with Quantitative -PCR technique is 72 hours.

Report Format

  • The report is obtained with respect to calibrator or control gene (e.g. ABL1) and the sample gene.
  • The ratio derived from PML::RARA fusion transcript product to the Calibrator gene.
  • The format of value in the ratio is the following.
PML::RARA (Sample)/ (e.g.) ABL1 (sample)
PML::RARA (Calibrator)/ (e.g.) ABL1 (Calibrator)

Quantitative-PCR test for PML::RARA fusion for diagnosis of APL detection at Ganesh Diagnostic and Imaging Centre

Ganesh Diagnostic and Imaging Centre, a renowned and leading medical diagnostic laboratory in India, is having the best and highest accurate Quantitative-PCR machine, to diagnose genetic AND Leukemia disorders in the most reliable way, reasonable price, and less time. Book now!

Latest Quantitative-PCR machines used for diagnosis of PML::RARA fusion transcript are listed here

  • Truelab Quattro Real-Time Quantitative PCR Machine
  • Genetix HT 96 Purifier Machine
  • Genetix 32 purifier machine
  • Truelab® Uno Dx Real Time Quantitative Micro PCR Analyzer

Why to choose Ganesh Diagnostic and Imaging Centre for Real Time or Quantitative PCR Test to diagnose Molecular based disorders?

  • NABL, NABH accredited laboratory, Specialized in Molecular Oncology tests
  • 24×365 open for patients of any kind of test, with availability of expert staffs
  • Free home collection of all types of samples by Expert technicians and phlebotomists.
  • Master Technicians at all departments
  • Doctorate (Ph.D. & MD) Scientific officers and In-charges at all departments
  • 50% Discount at kind of tests of all molecular biology tests
  • Online availabilityof reports for all kinds of tests.
  • Extra-caring and helpful staffs
  • Ambulance availability for patients 24×365 free of cost
  • Free transport facility for patients who come from distant locations

Visit Ganesh Diagnostic and Imaging Centre, Pathology lab near me!

It is spread across the Delhi-NCR region to cater to your need.

Book your appointment now!