Hepatitis B: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Hepatitis B: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

The Hepatitis B is known to be an infection of one’s liver that is caused by hepatitis B virus. This infection could be either acute (short and severe) or chronic in nature (long term).

The Hepatitis B is known to be an infection of one’s liver that is caused by hepatitis B virus. This infection could be either acute (short and severe) or chronic in nature (long term).

Hepatitis B is seen to cause chronic infection and also puts people at a high risk of being dead suffering from cirrhosis followed by liver cancer.

Mode of Transmission

  • It Is Seen To Spread Through The Following Mode:
  • Contact With An Infected Body Fluid Such As Blood
  • Infected  Saliva
  • Vaginal Fluids And Also Semen
  • Sharing  Of Infected Needles
  • Passed From Mother To Her Child (Vertical Transmission)
  • Unprotected Sexual Contact With The Infected Person
  • Due to homosexuality In Men

Key Facts:

  • Until 1982, the prevention of Hepatitis B was based on passive immunoprophylaxis either with standard immunoglobulin containing modest levels of anti-Hbs.
  • WHO estimates that 296 million people were living with chronic hepatitis B infection in 2019, with 1.5 million new infections each year.
  • The likelihood of chronicity after acute hepatitis B varies as a function of age. The infection at birth is associated with clinically silent acute infection but has a 90% chance of chronic infection.

Note: The degree of liver injury in patients is variable, ranging from none in inactive carriers to mild to moderate to severe.


It is seen that at least 296 million people, or say 3.8% of world's population, had the chronic HBV infection as of the year 2019.

Another round of about 1.5 million cases of the acute HBV infection has also occurred that particular year.


Most of the people here have not experienced any symptoms when the individual is newly infected.

Some people who suffer from acute illness with these symptoms would last for several weeks. These are as follows:

Once it becomes severe, the acute hepatitis could also lead to ones liver failure, and ultimately, which when getting worse- into death.

Note: It is seen that most people do recover from an acute illness. However, some people with the chronic hepatitis B would develop the progressive liver disease and pose further complications for example- Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). These diseases are known to be fatal.

Hepatitis B Complications

Although it has been noticed that many people with chronic hepatitis B would not feel ill or even know about having Hepatitis B unless in its late stages,

Some individuals also develop into serious complications. These are as follows:

  • Cirrhosis, or called as the scarring of liver.
  • Liver cancer
  • Liver failure or end-stage” liver disease.
  • Kidney disease
  • Inflammation of blood vessels.

HBV-HIV confection

There is about 1% of the individuals that are today living with a HBV infection (that is around 2.7 million people) while they are also infected with HIV infection.

Conversely, it is also seen that the global prevalence of a HBV infection in the HIV-infected persons is about 7.4%.

 Since the year of 2015, WHO has also recommended treatment for all individuals that are diagnosed with HIV infection, regardless of their stage of the disease.

The drug, Tenofovir, is included in treatment combinations and is recommended as the first-line therapy for the HIV infection, it is also active against the HBV infection.


The Common Tests & Procedures

  • Antigen test: This blood test helps to detect presence of the HBsAg which would confirm the infection.
  • Transient elastography: There is an ultrasound test that would help in further detection of the amount of any liver damage.
  • Biopsy: It would help in extracting the small piece of liver to further assess the extent of any damage to the liver.


It is seen that there is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis B is seen to be treated with some medicines.

The Care for any acute hepatitis B would be focused on making any person comfortable. They should be able to eat a healthy diet and also drink plenty of liquids to prevent the person by dehydration from the persons vomiting and diarrhea.

While, the chronic hepatitis B infection is seen to be treated with your oral medicines, this includes tenofovir or entecavir.

Uses of this treatment procedure:

  • It would slow down the advance of disease: cirrhosis
  • It would reduce the cases of any liver cancer
  • It will improve long term survival.

Most people would be able to start hepatitis B treatment; hence, they would continue it for life.

Prevention tips from Ganesh Diagnostic & Imaging Center

The Hepatitis B disease is known to be preventable with a vaccine.

  • The baby would receive hepatitis B vaccine as soon as after the birth (within 24 hours itself). This is then followed by the two or even three doses of the hepatitis B vaccine, which is given at least the duration of four weeks apart.
  • The booster will not be required if people have completed three-dose vaccination series.
  • This vaccine usually protects against the hepatitis B infection for at least 20 years and then probably ahead in life.

As stated before, Hepatitis B could also be passed from the mother to child. This can further be prevented by consuming the antiviral medicines to prevent any transmission, in addition to the use of the vaccine.

To reduce the risk of getting the infection or even spreading hepatitis B:

  • Practice safe sexual contact with your partner
  • To avoid sharing of any needles or even the equipment that is used for injecting the drugs, piercing, or tattooing
  • Wash your hands thoroughly once you come in contact with any blood, body fluids, or the contaminated surfaces
  • Be careful if you are working as a healthcare professional (PEP technique post exposure)

To seek Free Consultation from the Doctor:

Contact- Dr. Ravin Sharma, (MBBS, MD in Radiology)

Available:  24*7*365

Phone Number: +919212125996

Why Ganesh diagnostic and Imaging Centre should be your preference to screen you for Hepatitis B?

At Ganesh Diagnostic and Imaging Centre, we are known for providing excellent service and care to its patients for decades. Lakhs of satisfied patients over the years!

It is an established and renowned diagnostic centre since 2001.

Their excellence is backed by NABH and NABL Accreditations

NABH accreditation is proof of highest standard of care and service provided to the patients. NABL accreditation reflects the competency of laboratories and equipment based on some national and international standards.

Test report is available digitally too.

Ganesh Diagnostic and Imaging Centre is a one-stop solution for getting all kinds of tests done, as all services are available under one roof.

The aim of GDIC is to provide world’s finest technology at the lowest price. 

The rates of scans are reasonably priced. Ganesh Diagnostic and Imaging Centre also offer FLAT 50% OFF on many tests. 

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