A group of viruses known as rhinoviruses are to blame for the common cold. They are a member of the Picornaviridae family, which also includes poliovirus and the hepatitis A virus, two other significant human diseases.
Rhinoviruses? A group of viruses known as rhinoviruses are to blame for the common cold. They are a member of the Picornaviridae family, which also includes poliovirus and the hepatitis A virus, two other significant human diseases. Very contagious rhinoviruses can be spread by contacting contaminated surfaces and then touching your face or mouth, or by respiratory secretions like those from coughing or sneezing.
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can infect both humans and animals and cause illness. While some coronaviruses, like the ones that cause the common cold, may produce moderate symptoms, others can result in more serious conditions including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus illness 2019, (COVID-19).
Ordering The Chaos: The Classification of Infectious Agents.
The family Picornaviridae and the genus Enterovirus both contain rhinoviruses. Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A), Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B), and Human rhinovirus C are the three rhinovirus species (HRV-C).
There are more than 100 different serotypes of the highly varied HRV-A and HRV-B, which together account for the majority of cases of the common cold. The recently identified HRV-C is linked to more serious respiratory infections, particularly in children and people with compromised immune systems.
Small, non-enveloped rhinoviruses having a capsid that houses the viral RNA genome are known as rhinoviruses. They are extremely transmissible because they may survive for several hours on surfaces and are resistant to environmental conditions.
The order Nidovirales contains the coronaviruses, a family of viruses distinguished by their unusual appearance, which includes a large encased RNA genome and club-shaped surface projections. Four genera make up the further division of the Coronaviridae family:
Alpha Coronaviruses: Viruses in the genus Alphacoronavirus primarily affect mammals, such as humans, pigs, and cats. Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and feline coronavirus are a few of the prominent viruses in this genus (FCoV).
Beta Coronaviruses: Beta Coronaviruses are members of this genus, which mostly affect animals like camels, bats, and people. Some of the well-known viruses in this genus are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).
Gamma viruses : This genus, known as gamma coronavirus, contains viruses that mostly affect birds, such as the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV).
Delta Coronaviruses: The genus Deltacoronavirus contains viruses that mostly affect mammals and birds, such as humans, pigs, and bats. The porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV) and the human coronavirus HKU1 are two of the more noteworthy viruses in this genus (HCoV-HKU1).
Life Cycle Of Both Viruses
There are numerous similarities between the life cycles of rhinoviruses and coronaviruses, but there are also some key distinctions. Their life histories are contrasted here:
Attachment: Both rhinoviruses and coronaviruses are capable of adhering to certain receptors on the surface of host cells, which are often found in the respiratory system.
Entry: Both viruses enter the host cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis, wherein the host cell engulfs the virus and seals it inside an endosome, a membrane-bound vesicle.
Genome release: Both viruses modify the structure of their viral proteins in response to the acidic environment of the endosome, which causes the release of their genomes into the cytoplasm of the host cell. Nevertheless, the method by which this happens is slightly different: coronaviruses release their DNA when the viral spike protein fuses with the endosomal membrane, whereas rhinoviruses release their genome after the viral capsid is destabilized by the acidic environment.
Translation: Both viruses convert their viral RNA genome into a single polyprotein, which is then split up into individual viral proteins by viral proteases.
Replication: Both viruses use a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to replicate their RNA genomes (RdRp).
Assembly: The viral RNA genome is packaged into new viral capsids, which are assembled from structural proteins by both viruses.
Release: Either by lysis or budding from the host cell membrane, both viruses expel mature viral particles from the host cell.
The whole life cycle of a rhinovirus lasts between 8 and 12 hours, while that of a coronavirus lasts between 24 and 48 hours. Both of these viruses can cause respiratory infection, though the degree of the symptoms they produce can vary greatly.
How These Viruses May Spread?
While rhinovirus and coronavirus transmission methods are similar, there are some distinctions in the forms of transmission.
Infected people's respiratory secretions, which can be released into the air through coughing, sneezing, or even talking, are the main way that rhinoviruses are spread. Moreover, these secretions can contaminate objects like doorknobs, phones, and keyboards, where they can stay contagious for a few hours to a few days. By touching contaminated surfaces and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth, people might catch rhinoviruses. Moreover, direct contact with an infected person, such as shaking hands, might result in the transmission of rhinoviruses.
Coronaviruses can also spread through the air in smaller respiratory droplets or aerosols, especially in enclosed spaces with inadequate ventilation. They can also spread through the respiratory secretions of infected people. The virus can also spread by direct touch with an infected person, such as shaking hands, and can live on surfaces for several hours to several days. Moreover, some data point to the possibility of coronavirus transmission through feces, however, this is a less frequent occurrence than pulmonary transmission.
Because people who are asymptomatic or just beginning to show symptoms can transfer coronaviruses and rhinoviruses, it is challenging to stop the transmission of these viruses.
Don't Ignore the Signs: Take Action to Protect Yourself and Others from Viral Illness.
Although there are important differences, coronavirus and rhinovirus symptoms can sometimes overlap. These symptoms and indicators are contrasted below:
- Runny or stuffy nose
- Sore throat
- Body aches
- Low-grade fever
- Fever or chills
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Muscle or body aches
- Net loss of taste or smell
- Sore throat
- Congestion or runny nose
- Nausea or vomiting
What Can Be The Diagnostic Criteria?
Typically, laboratory testing is required for the diagnosis of rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which finds the virus' genetic material in respiratory secretions like nasal or throat swabs, is the most used technique for identifying rhinovirus infection. To find rhinovirus infection, further procedures such as viral culture or antigen assays may be used.
Using a PCR test to identify the virus' genetic material in respiratory secretions, such as nasal or throat swabs, is the most popular way to diagnose coronavirus infection. Coronavirus infection can also be identified via serology tests, which look for antibodies to the virus in blood samples. In extreme situations, imaging exams like CT scans or chest X-rays may also be utilized to assess the extent of lung damage brought on by the coronavirus.
How These Can Be Treated?
Since there is no known cure or therapy for rhinoviruses or coronaviruses, symptomatic care can help patients feel better overall by reducing their symptoms.
In most cases, over-the-counter medications are used to treat rhinovirus infections. These include cough suppressants to stop coughing, decongestants to relieve nasal congestion and pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen for headaches and body aches. Getting enough rest and drinking lots of water can both improve the immune system's ability to fight infection and reduce symptoms.
The severity of the sickness determines the course of treatment for coronavirus infection. Similar to how rhinoviruses are treated, mild instances might only need symptomatic care, but more serious ones might need hospitalization and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration management, and symptom-relieving drugs.
Antiviral drugs may be used to treat coronavirus infections in some circumstances, although their efficacy is still being researched and may differ depending on the patient and the particular virus strain.
In conclusion, viruses have the potential to significantly affect public health by causing a variety of illnesses, ranging in severity from mild to severe. While there are remedies for symptom relief, prevention is crucial for limiting the spread of viruses. We can help avoid infection and safeguard ourselves and those around us from the transmission of viruses by adhering to public health authority's recommendations, such as routine handwashing, wearing masks, and social seclusion.