Hepatitis A and B- Symptoms, Causes Treatment & Diagnosis

Hepatitis A and B- Symptoms, Causes Treatment & Diagnosis

Hepatitis-related deaths accounted for 7134 deaths globally in 2016 (or 0.5% of viral hepatitis mortality), according to WHO estimates. Also, it has the potential to spread from person to person, devastating communities for...

Is Hepatitis Contagious?

This article deals with all the queries you have in your mind regarding hepatitis.

Hepatitis-related deaths accounted for 7134 deaths globally in 2016 (or 0.5% of viral hepatitis mortality), according to WHO estimates. Also, it has the potential to spread from person to person, devastating communities for months at a time.

What is Hepatitis A?

The hepatitis A virus, which induces hepatitis A, results in inflammation of the liver. (HAV). Oral-anal sex, tainted food or water, inadequate sanitation, and sloppy personal hygiene are all significant risk factors for the illness.

Hepatitis A viruses can withstand food production techniques that are often intended to kill or control bacterial diseases and persist in the environment.

How will Hepatitis A encounter you?

A virus that infects liver cells and results in inflammation is the cause of hepatitis A. The inflammation can impair your liver's functionality and contribute to other hepatitis A symptoms.

  • When even a small bit of infected excrement contacts another person's mouth, the virus can spread (faecal-oral transmission).
  • When you eat or drink something that has been in contact with infected faeces, you could get hepatitis A.
  • Another way to contract the infection is by being close to someone who has hepatitis A. The virus can survive for a few months on surfaces. 
  • Sneezing, coughing and casual contact do not spread the infection.
  • Consuming contaminated water, consumption of food cleaned in polluted water and consuming raw shellfish from contaminated water can cause hepatitis A.
  • Physical relations with a person who has this disease can infect you.

Various Complications for Hepatitis A-

Hepatitis A does not harm the liver permanently and does not develop into a persistent (chronic) infection, in contrast to other types of viral hepatitis. Rarely, especially in older adults or those with chronic liver problems, hepatitis A can result in an abrupt (acute) loss of liver function risk factors-

  • Travellers internationally
  • sex with other men by males
  • Those who plan on having frequent
  • one-on-one interactions with an overseas adoptee
  • Homeless persons

Symptoms of hepatitis A-

Hepatitis A does not always cause symptoms. Adults are more prone than kids to experience symptoms. However some people can experience illness for up to 6 months, and symptoms typically persist for less than 2 months.

If symptoms appear, they may consist of:

  • yellow eyes or skin
  • unwilling to eat
  • uneasy stomach
  • hurling up
  • abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Faeces with a pale tone or dark urine
  • Diarrhoea
  • Aching joints

How does hepatitis A spread?

A can be spread through the following- Personal interactions- Hepatitis A can be transferred by intimate, close contact with an infected person, such as through specific sexual interactions (such as oral-anal sex), providing care for an unwell person, or sharing drugs with others. People can transfer the hepatitis A virus even before they experience symptoms, making it incredibly dangerous.

How is the Diagnosis of hepatitis A done?

This is identified by doctors through a blood test and symptoms.

IgM antibodies (immunoglobulin M)- When you are first exposed to hepatitis A, your body produces these. Three to six months pass before they leave your blood. IgG antibodies(immunoglobulin G)-After the virus has been present in your body for a while, these manifest. They may be with you forever.

Is there any Vaccination available against Hepatitis A?

  • In healthy individuals, the vaccine to prevent it has a 95% success rate and a 20-year shelf life.
  • Hepatitis A vaccination is administered by doctors in two doses. Six to twelve months after the first shot, you should receive the second one.
  • To be completely immune to the virus, you must receive both doses. Consult your doctor about ways to avoid contracting hepatitis A.
  • if you're going to a developing nation where the disease is prevalent and you haven't gotten the hepatitis A vaccine. Most people begin to feel protected two weeks after their initial dose.

How can you get rid of hepatitis- A?

  • Rest, plenty of drinks, and a nutritious diet are all part of the treatment plan to help with symptom relief.
  • Also, your doctor can recommend drugs to help with symptom relief.
  • Before using any prescription or over-the-counter medications, vitamins or other nutritional supplements, or complementary or alternative medications that may harm your liver, consult your doctor.
  • Until your doctor declares that you are fully recovered from hepatitis A, you should abstain from alcohol.
  • To ensure that your body has fully recovered, visit your doctor frequently. See your doctor once more if you experience symptoms for more than six months.


In most cases, recovery takes two months. Often, there are no long-term consequences. You'll have lifetime immunity once you've recovered. Although it is uncommon, some people experience intermittent disease for around six months before it goes away. Although liver failure is extremely unusual to occur, the likelihood is increased if you have a history of liver disease or are elderly. You will require a transplant if your liver is failing.

About Hepatitis B-


  • Over 6 million children under the age of five are among the 296 million people who have hepatitis B.
  • An estimated 820,000 fatalities are attributed to hepatitis B each year.
  • In 25% of cases of chronic hepatitis B, liver cancer develops.

The Hepatitis B virus causes the infectious liver illness known as hepatitis B. An "acute" infection, which can range in intensity from a very mild sickness with few or no symptoms to a serious condition necessitating hospitalisation, can develop in a person when they are first infected.

The first six months following a person's exposure to the Hepatitis B virus are referred to as acute.

Some individuals can successfully fight the infection and get rid of the virus. Others continue to have the infection, which results in a "chronic," or lifelong, sickness. When the Hepatitis B virus persists in a person's body, they develop chronic hepatitis b.

The infection can result in major health issues over time. There are an estimated 1.2 million chronic carriers in the US, which lead to about 17,000 hospitalisations and 5,500 fatalities annually. Hepadnaviridae is a family of viruses that includes hepatitis B. It is spread by direct contact with infected blood through the skin or the mucous membranes.

What Causes hepatitis B?

  • The hepatitis B virus is the cause of hepatitis B infection (HBV). The viral infection spreads via body secretions.
  • Sharing a razor or toothbrush By contaminated needles or sharp instruments HBV not only survives in blood but also in saliva and other body fluids.
  • Hepatitis B cannot be spread by saliva as easily as some other viruses may.
  • So, it is unlikely that you will contract it by sharing food or eating utensils, or from someone sneezing or coughing directly on you.
  • With a persistent infection, you might periodically experience minor or hazy symptoms, or you might go years without experiencing any at all.
  • Later onset of symptoms, particularly those associated with liver disease, maybe a sign that your liver is starting to fail.


Parenteral or mucosal exposure to HBsAg-positive bodily fluids from individuals with acute or chronic HBV infection results in the transmission of HBV. It uses a distinctive reverse transcription technique to replicate in hepatocytes.

Various Complications of Hepatitis- B-

  • While the majority of adult patients with acute HBV infections recover completely, 1% to 2% of these patients develop fulminant hepatitis.
  • The majority of the serious issues linked to HBV infection are caused by chronic infection, even though acute HBV infection might have devastating repercussions.
  • Transmission or exposure of hepatitis B- Parenteral or mucosal exposure to HBsAg-positive bodily fluids from individuals with acute or chronic HBV infection results in the transmission of HBV.
  • Blood and serous fluids have the greatest virus titers; other fluids like saliva, tears, urine, and semen have lower titers. Semen is the means of sexual transmission, and saliva can spread through bites; other methods of exposure, such as kissing, are unlikely to be the means of transfer.

Who are at risk of the hepatitis B virus?

If you live in an area where the infection is more prevalent, you run a higher risk of contracting hepatitis B. The likelihood of contracting the virus increases as more people in your immediate vicinity may be affected. Communities with higher infection rates consist of those who have HIV.

Up to 7.5 per cent of HIV patients also have chronic hepatitis B.

individuals who inject narcotics. In places that have lately been impacted by the opioid epidemic, rates of hepatitis B infection have sharply increased.

People with ancestry in Africa, Asia, or Pacific Islands.

How is a diagnosis of hepatitis B done?

Clinical manifestations can range from an asymptomatic cholestatic hepatitis infection to fulminant liver failure. Throughout the prodromal stage and early clinical stages of the

illness, these tests may continue to be positive.

Chronic Illness When HBsAg has been present in the serum for more than six months, it is considered to be a chronic hepatitis B infection. Serious consequences, such as cirrhosis, liver failure, hepatocellular cancer, or even death, can result from chronic infection.

When bilirubin levels are 2.5–3.0 mg/dl or higher, the icteric stage of hepatitis is confirmed. Overproduction of bilirubin due to hemolysis or renal failure is indicated by bilirubin levels above 30 mg/dl (failure of excretion).

Hepatitis screening intends to recognise and categorise hepatitis viral infections. To find out if you've ever had any of these 3 viruses, you can do a hepatitis virus panel, which is a series of blood tests. These tests can be used on blood samples to check for multiple hepatitis virus types at once. Tests utilising antibodies and antigens can identify all known hepatitis viruses.

Symptoms include:

  • Exhaustion
  • Dark yellow urine
  • Skin discolouration
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Stomach ache

There is no need for further preparation for the hepatitis screening profile test. The physician should be notified of any blood transfusions in the prior three months as they can have an impact on the retic count.

Applications for hepatitis screening profile tests include identifying people who have had hepatitis B or C in the past and determining how contagious a hepatitis patient is. Keep an eye on anyone getting hepatitis therapy. The tests may also be used to identify other disorders, such as chronic persistent hepatitis.

Treatment Options available for Hepatitis B:

  • Prophylactic therapy:

If you or your kid have cause to suspect they have recently been exposed to the virus, a healthcare professional may advise prophylactic therapies to help stop the infection from taking hold.

Among these remedies are:

  • The hepatitis B vaccine should be administered right away, preferably within 24 hours of exposure if you haven't already received it, according to healthcare professionals.
  • To be completely protected against the virus, you will require two further treatments during the following six months.
  • For those who have recently been exposed to the virus, it is administered as a shot to help prevent illness.

Acute therapy-

Acute hepatitis B infections cannot be treated with a single drug, and many people won't require any. But, if your symptoms are severe, a medical professional may keep an eye out for problems and give supportive care, such as:

  • IV liquids.
  • IV nourishment.
  • Respite discomfort.
  • Chronic therapy-

Medications for recurring infections


If the infection is only short-lived and acute, there's a strong possibility your immune system will quickly get rid of it. You won't get an acute infection once you've healed from it. You can find out if you are immune to the virus and have recovered with a blood test. If you don't treat it while it's still acute, the infection will become chronic and last the rest of your life.

Although chronic hepatitis B cannot be cured, treatment can make it manageable. If you have a chronic infection, a blood test can determine if you need treatment.

Hepatitis is a condition that has to be treated, not ignored. Fight hepatitis, don't ignore it! Don't let your life suffer as a result. Maintain good health and avoid hepatitis.