Hematuria (Blood in Urine): Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Hematuria (Blood in Urine): Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Hematuria is the medical term for blood in your urine. A few distinctive conditions and illnesses can cause hematuria. These incorporate contaminations, kidney illness, cancer, and uncommon blood disarranged. The blood may...


Hematuria is the medical term for blood in your urine.

A few distinctive conditions and illnesses can cause hematuria. These incorporate contaminations, kidney illness, cancer, and uncommon blood disarranged. The blood may be unmistakable or in such little amounts that it can't be seen with the bare eye.

Any blood within the pee can be a sign of a genuine well-being issue, indeed on the off chance that it happens as it were once. Disregarding hematuria can lead to the decline of genuine conditions like cancer and kidney malady, so you ought to converse with your specialist as long as possible.

Your specialist can analyze your pee and arrange imaging tests to decide the cause of the hematuria and make arrangements for treatment.

What are the sorts of hematuria?

There are two fundamental sorts of hematuria:

net hematuria and tiny hematuria.

Gross hematuria

If there's sufficient blood in your pee that your pee shows up pink or ruddy or has spots of obvious blood, you've got “gross hematuria.”

Microscopic hematuria

After you can't see the blood since the sum is so little, you have got “microscopic hematuria.” As it were, a lab test that identifies blood or looking at a test of pee beneath a magnifying instrument can affirm infinitesimal hematuria.

What causes hematuria?

There are numerous conceivable causes of hematuria. In a few cases, the blood may be from a distinctive source.

Blood can show up to be in the pee when it's truly coming from the vagina in ladies, the ejaculate in men, or from a bowel development in either men or ladies. If the blood is genuinely in your pee, there are a few potential causes.


Contamination is one of the foremost familiar reasons for hematuria. The disorder may well be someplace in your urinary tract, your bladder, or in your kidneys.

Contamination occurs when microbes move up the urethra, the tube that carries pee out of the body from the bladder. The contamination can move into the bladder and indeed into the kidneys. It often causes torment and a need to urinate as often as possible.


Another common reason for blood within the pee is the nearness of stones in the bladder or kidney. These are precious stones that shape from the minerals in your pee. They can create the interior of your kidneys or bladder.

Expansive stones can cause a blockage that frequently comes about in hematuria and noteworthy torment.

Broadened prostate

In men who are middle-aged and more seasoned, a reasonably common cause of hematuria is an extended prostate. This organ is fair underneath the bladder and closes the urethra.

When the prostate gets greater, because it regularly does in men at centre age, it compresses the urethra. This causes issues with urinating and may avoid the bladder from purging totally. This can induce a urinary tract ailment (UTI) with blood within the pee.

Kidney illness

A less common reason for seeing blood within the pee is kidney malady. An infected or aroused kidney can cause hematuria. This infection can happen on its claim or as a portion of another infection, such as diabetes.

In children ages 6 to 10 a long time, the kidney disorder post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis may cause hematuria. This clutter can create one to two weeks after an untreated strep disease. Once common, it's uncommon nowadays since antimicrobials can rapidly treat strep diseases.


Tumors of the bladder, kidney, or prostate can cause the blood within the pee. This can be a side effect that regularly happens in progressed cancer cases. There may not be prior signs of a problem.


Certain drugs can cause hematuria. These incorporate:

  • Penicillin
  • Headache Medicine
  • Blood Thinners Like Heparin and Warfarin (Coumadin)
  • Cyclophosphamide, Which May Be A Medication Utilized To Treat Certain Sorts Of Cancer

Less common causes

Some other causes of hematuria aren't exceptionally common. Uncommon blood clutters such as sickle cell frailty, Alport disorder, and haemophilia can cause the blood within the pee.

Strenuous work out or a blow to the kidneys can moreover cause blood to appear up within the pee.

Signs and side effects

The primary step within the assessment of hematuria consists of a point-by-point history and a careful physical examination. Endeavors ought to be made to recognize glomerular causes from extraglomerular ones, as takes after:

  • Entry of clots in pee recommends an extraglomerular cause.
  • Fever, stomach torment, dysuria, recurrence, and later enuresis in more seasoned children may point to a urinary tract disease as the cause.
  • Later injury to the guts may be indicative of hydronephrosis.
  • Early-morning periorbital puffiness, weight pick up, oliguria, dark-coloured pee, and edema or hypertension propose a glomerular cause.
  • Hematuria due to glomerular reasons is painless.
  • Later throat or skin contamination may recommend postinfectious glomerulonephritis.
  • Joint torments, skin rashes, and prolonged fever in adolescents suggest a collagen vascular clutter
  • Iron deficiency cannot be analyzed for by hematuria independently; in awareness of hematuria and paleness, other situations are thought to be considered.
  • Skin rashes and joint pain can occur in Henoch- Schonlein purpura and systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • Data concerning working out, feminine cycle, later bladder catheterization, intake of certain drugs or harmful substances, or passage of calculus may moreover help in the differential conclusion.
  • A family history that's suggestive of Alport disorder, collagen vascular maladies, urolithiasis, or polycystic kidney illness is critical.

Physical examination ought to incorporate the taking after:

  • Estimation of the blood weight (with a fittingly measured sleeve)
  • Evaluation for the nearness of periorbital puffiness or fringe edema
  • Point-by-point skin examination to look for purpura and/or petechiae
  • Stomach examination to search for discernable kidneys
  • Cautious examination of the genitalia
  • Nitty gritty ophthalmologic assessment (in familial hematuria)

The taking after discoveries offer assistance recognize between glomerular and nonglomerular hematuria:

Glomerular hematuria:

Brown-colored pee, RBC casts, and dysmorphic (little, twisted, deformed, some of the time divided) RBCs and proteinuria

Nonglomerular hematuria:

Ruddy or pink pee, a section of blood clots, and geomorphic (normal-sized, biconcave moulded) erythrocytes

How is the cause of hematuria diagnosed?

If you're seeing your specialist for hematuria, they'll inquire about the sum of blood and when you see it amid urination. They'll need to know how often you urinate, any torment you're encountering, if you see blood clots, and what solutions you're taking.

Your doctor will at that moment grant you a physical assessment and compile a test of your pee for testing. The investigation of your pee can affirm the nearness of blood and detect microscopic organisms on the off chance that contamination is a cause.

Your specialist may place imaging examinations such as a CT scan, which utilizes radiation to produce a picture of your body.

Another conceivable test your specialist may need to do may be a cystoscopy. With the camera, your specialist can look at the insides of your bladder and urethra to determine the cause of your hematuria.

When do you look for medical attention?

Since a few of the causes of blood in the urine are serious, you ought to look for therapeutic consideration to begin the time you see it. You shouldn't disregard indeed a little sum of blood in your pee.

Moreover, see your healthcare supplier if you do not see blood in your pee but involve a visit, troublesome, or difficult urination, stomach torment, or kidney torment. These may all be indications of infinitesimal hematuria.

Seek crisis offer assistance if you can't urinate, see blood clots once you urinate, or have blood in your pee along with one or more of the taking after:

  • Queasiness
  • Heaving
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Torment In Your Side, Back, Or Guts


The laboratory examinations ordered for the assessment of hematuria must be established on the clinical record and the physical analysis. Tests that will be helpful include the taking after:

  • Urinalysis with a cautious tiny survey of the pee sample.
  • Phase-contrast microscopy to assist decide the source of the dying. In clinical hone, this test is not continuously doable.
  • Electrolyte, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine levels.
  • Hematologic and coagulation ponders (eg, total blood count [CBC] and, sometimes, platelet counts).
  • Irregular pee calcium and creatinine levels.
  • Urine culture for suspected urinary tract disease (UTI).
  • The taking after imaging considers may be supportive
  • Renal and bladder ultrasonography
  • Winding computed tomography (CT)
  • Voiding cystourethrography

Radionuclide studies

Intravenous urography seldom contributes extra data in the evaluation of hematuria and comes about in superfluous presentation to ionizing radiation.

A kidney biopsy is seldom shown in the evaluation of isolated asymptomatic hematuria. Relative signs for performing a kidney biopsy in patients with hematuria are as takes after:

  • Significant proteinuria
  • Anomalous renal function
  • Repetitive diligent hematuria
  • Serologic variations from the norm (irregular complement, ANA, or dsDNA levels)
  • Repetitive net hematuria
  • A family history of the end-stage renal malady
  • In most patients, a renal biopsy either is ordinary or reveals minor changes, such as lean glomerular storm cellar films, central glomerulonephritis, or mild mesangial hypercellularity.

How is hematuria treated?

The cause of your hematuria will determine what sort of treatment you receive.

If a disease, such as a UTI, is dependable for your hematuria, your healthcare provider will test microscopic organisms inducing the infection.

Hematuria caused by huge kidney stones can be difficult in case cleared out untreated. Medicine drugs and medications can help you pass stones.

Your healthcare provider may recommend employing a strategy called extracorporeal stun wave lithotripsy (ESWL) to break up the stones.

ESWL involves using sound waves to break kidney stones into little pieces that can pass into your urine. The method as a rule takes around one hour and may be done under light anaesthesia.

Your healthcare supplier may also use a scope to remove your kidney stones. To do this, they pass a lean tube called a ureteroscope through your urethra and bladder into your ureter. The scope is prepared with a camera to locate the stones.

Your healthcare supplier will utilize extraordinary devices to catch the stones and remove them. On the off chance that the stones are expensive, they will be broken into pieces before evacuation.

If a broadened prostate is causing your hematuria, your healthcare supplier may prescribe medication, such as alpha-blockers or 5-alpha reductase inhibitors.

What are the complications related to hematuria?

Some of the causes of blood in the urine are genuine, so you ought to contact your healthcare supplier if you notice this symptom.

In case the symptom is due to cancer, ignoring it can lead to the progression of the tumors to the point that treatment is troublesome. Untreated infections can eventually lead to kidney disappointment.

Treatment can offer assistance to diminish side effects in case the cause of hematuria is an extended prostate. Overlooking may lead to distress from needing to urinate habitually, serious torment, and even cancer.

How can I avoid hematuria?

Avoiding hematuria implies anticipating the basic causes:

  • To avoid contamination, drink a bounty of water every day, urinate instantly after sexual intercut, and practice good cleanliness.
  • To anticipate stones, sip plenty of water and retain a strategic distance from an overabundance of salt and certain nourishments like spinach and rhubarb.
  • To anticipate bladder cancer, refrain from smoking, restrain your exposure to chemicals, and drink plenty of water.

When to Contact a Restorative Proficient

You may not see blood in your pee since it could be a little sum and is minuscule. Your well-being care provider may discover it while checking your pee amid a routine exam.

Never disregard the blood you see within the urine. Get checked by your provider, particularly if you also have:

  • Inconvenience with urination
  • Visit urination                                              
  • Unexplained weight misfortune
  • Pressing urination
  • You have got a fever, queasiness, spewing, shaking chills, or torment in your guts, side, or back
  • You're unable to urinate
  • You are enacting blood clots in your pee


You have got tormented by sexual intercourse or heavy menstrual bleeding. This may be due to an issue related to your regenerative framework.

You have got pee dribbling, nighttime urination, or trouble starting your pee stream. This may be from a prostate issue.