Dengue - Symptoms, Types, Causes & Diagnosis

Dengue - Symptoms, Types, Causes & Diagnosis

The Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits dengue fever, a viral disease characterized by an abrupt rise in temperature, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, a skin rash, and, in severe cases,...


The Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits dengue fever, a viral disease characterized by an abrupt rise in temperature, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, a skin rash, and, in severe cases, hemorrhagic fever, shock, and even death. The infection is brought about by one of four firmly related infections, known as Nook 1, Cave 2, Lair 3, and Sanctum 4, which have a place with the Flaviviridae family. Millions of people worldwide are annually affected by dengue fever, which is a significant public health problem and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions. More than 100 nations are affected by the disease, particularly in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, where conditions for mosquito breeding and viral transmission are ideal due to inadequate mosquito control measures, poor sanitation, and overcrowding. Dengue fever is a multifaceted illness that affects not only individuals but also communities and nations' development and places a significant strain on healthcare systems and economies. In order to control the spread of dengue fever and lessen its impact on society, preventative measures like vector control, vaccination, and public education are essential.


Dengue fever is brought on by the dengue virus, which is transmitted to people by the attack of the infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. No one can contract the infection from another. An infected person becomes a carrier of the virus and can spread it to other mosquitoes when a mosquito feeds on their blood. The infection multiplies at that location in the insect's salivary organ and is then transmitted to the next person the mosquito bites. The Aedes aegypti mosquito breeds in clear, still water and is most active during the day.

Problems and warning signs

A viral illness known as dengue fever often manifests 4–7 days following the disease caused by the dengue virus. severe headache, high fever, and joint and muscular pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and a characteristic rash are the most frequently observed symptoms. The rash usually appears between two and five days after the fever starts. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) can develop in severe cases, posing a serious threat to a person's health and well-being. Shock, organ failure, and even death can result from DHF-caused internal and external bleeding. To avoid complications and reduce the risk of death, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease are essential.

Dengue fever also causes severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can lead to hypotension and collapse of the circulatory system. Dengue fever can also occasionally result in encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain that causes neurological symptoms like seizures, confusion, and altered mental status.

As a result, preventing dengue fever necessitates taking appropriate precautions, such as reducing mosquito populations and wearing personal protective equipment. People should see a doctor right away if they have a fever or other symptoms that could be from dengue fever to avoid complications like DHF. The prognosis for individuals with dengue fever is generally favorable with prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, and the majority fully recover without long-term complications.


The Flaviviridae family of RNA viruses includes the dengue virus, which is an RNA virus. The virus enters the body through the skin when a person is bitten by a mosquito that is infected. The virus then multiplies in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and liver after that. The infection stimulates the production of cytokines, which results in the dengue fever's adverse symptoms. As a result of the virus infecting the endothelial cells lining blood arteries, plasma escapes from those veins. This may result in a drop in blood volume, which may result in organ dysfunction and shock.


Dengue fever is often diagnosed with a blood test that looks for antibodies the immune system has developed in response to the dengue virus. Because antibodies usually begin to appear during the first week of illness, this test is frequently performed. A second blood test may then be performed approximately a week later to validate the diagnosis and confirm the presence of the antibodies. To determine the extent and severity of the illness, additional tests, such as a comprehensive blood count, liver function tests, and a clotting profile, may also be carried out. These tests can help figure out how many platelets and white blood cells are in the blood as well as how damaged the liver is and how well it can clot. It's important to keep an eye on patients with severe dengue fever because it could lead to a life-threatening condition called dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. In order to rule out other illnesses and conditions that can present with similar symptoms, such as chikungunya fever or a Zika virus infection, a comprehensive physical examination and a detailed medical history may also be carried out. For early treatment and management, prompt and accurate diagnosis of dengue fever is essential because it can reduce the risk of complications and increase the patient's chances of recovery.


Reduce the breeding and transmission of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the primary dengue virus vector, as part of a multifaceted strategy to prevent dengue fever. Eliminating any standing water in the vicinity of homes and communities, which serve as mosquitoes' breeding grounds, is one of the most effective methods for preventing mosquito breeding. This can be accomplished by covering water storage containers to prevent mosquitoes from getting to them and regularly emptying and cleaning water containers like flower pots, buckets, and old tires. Public education programs and community-based campaigns can also be used to make people aware of how important it is to store and dispose of water properly.

Personal protective equipment (PPE) can also be used to prevent mosquito bites in addition to removing breeding areas. The application of mosquito repellents to exposed skin and the use of mosquito nets, particularly while sleeping, can reduce the likelihood of being bitten by a mosquito. It is also possible to wear clothing that covers the majority of the body to reduce skin exposure. In endemic regions, an additional effective prevention strategy is the consistent use of clothing and bed nets treated with insecticides.

In addition, governments can play a crucial role in dengue prevention by reducing the population of mosquitoes through vector control methods like fogging and insecticide spraying. However, due to the potential for adverse effects on health and the environment, these strategies should only be utilized as a last resort. Community-based strategies like source reduction and larviciding, on the other hand, are thought to be more sustainable and efficient at controlling mosquito populations.

To prevent dengue fever and lessen its impact on public health, an integrated strategy that incorporates environmental management, community participation, and personal protective measures is essential.


There is no specific treatment for dengue fever; medical treatment primarily consists of supportive therapy to alleviate symptoms and prevent complications. Typically, the patient is advised to get plenty of rest, drink plenty of fluids, and take the pain and fever-reducing medications like analgesics and antipyretics. Additionally, it is suggested to avoid aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), apply cool compresses, and take tepid baths to alleviate discomfort and prevent bleeding complications.

In severe cases, the patient may require hospitalization, intravenous fluids, and fever and pain medication management. Close observation of imperative signs, for example, circulatory strain, pulse, respiratory rate, and pee yield, is additionally fundamental to survey the movement of the sickness and the reaction to therapy. The treatment of severe dengue fever and its complications, such as dengue shock syndrome and dengue hemorrhagic fever, may also require blood transfusions and other supportive therapies.

In addition, people who have dengue fever should avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes to stop the virus from spreading further. Patients should also tell their doctor if they are taking any medications or have any other conditions that could make them more likely to get bleeding or have other problems.

In conclusion, the treatment of dengue fever primarily focuses on symptom relief and supportive care, with severe cases requiring hospitalization and close monitoring. The risk of complications can be decreased and patient outcomes can be improved with prompt medical attention and early detection.


Dengue fever is a serious health threat that mostly affects people living in tropical and subtropical areas. The Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits the dengue virus, which causes it. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a potentially fatal complication that can occur in severe cases of the virus. The majority of cases of dengue fever resolve on their own.

The forecast of DHF is profoundly reliant upon the seriousness of the ailment and the ideal mediation of clinical consideration. Early location and treatment of DHF can fundamentally work on the patient's possibilities of recuperation and limit the gamble of inconveniences. Dengue fever, on the other hand, has no known cure, and medical treatment primarily focuses on supportive measures. High fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and a rash are typical dengue fever symptoms.

In order to prevent dengue fever, the mosquito population must be controlled and measures must be taken to reduce exposure to mosquito bites. Because severe cases of DHF can progress rapidly, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to preventing further complications. As a result, stopping the spread of dengue fever requires prompt monitoring and surveillance of cases.

In conclusion, dengue fever is a disease spread by mosquitoes that occasionally causes severe complications. Dengue fever can be effectively avoided by controlling the number of mosquitoes and wearing personal protective equipment. The prognosis of patients can be significantly improved and the risk of complications reduced if DHF is detected and treated promptly. Dengue fever prevention and treatment can also be aided by public education and awareness campaigns aimed at identifying the disease's symptoms and prompt medical attention. In summary, dengue fever poses a serious threat to public health, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The dengue virus, which transmits it, is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Dengue fever symptoms include a high temperature, excruciating headache, aching muscles and joints, exhaustion, nausea, vomiting, and a rash. In severe situations, hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue (DHF), a potentially fatal illness, might appear. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever, and most therapies are supportive. The prevention of dengue fever involves using mosquito nets and removers, as well as limiting the breeding of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Early detection and treatment of DHF improve recovery chances while lowering the risk of complications.