Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI):  Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

It is one of the most common bacterial infections that can impact the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, among other parts of the urinary tract. About 50% of all females will experience at least one UTI in their lifetime,...


It is one of the most common bacterial infections that can impact the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, among other parts of the urinary tract. About 50% of all females will experience at least one UTI in their lifetime, making UTIs a prevalent medical condition, particularly in women.

The symptoms of UTI can vary depending on which part of the urinary tract is affected, but common symptoms include a strong, constant urge to urinate, a burning feeling during urination, dribbling of urine frequently, or urine that is hazy or has a strong scent and pain or pressure in the lower abdomen or back.

UTIs can usually be treated with antibiotics, and prompt treatment is important to prevent complications such as kidney damage or sepsis. Preventive measures, such as staying well-hydrated, urinating regularly, and practising good hygiene, can also help reduce the risk of developing UTIs.

Let's learn about Urinary Tract Infections through this article!

What is Urinary Tract Infection?

Any portion of the urinary system can become infected, which is described as a urinary tract infection (UTI). The bladder, urethra, ureters, and kidneys make up the urine system. The bladder and urethra are the parts of the lower urinary system that are most commonly infected.

Women are more likely than males to experience a UTI. A bladder-specific illness may be uncomfortable and painful. However, if a UTI spreads to the kidneys, severe health issues may occur.

What is the urinary system?

Urine is one of the body's liquid waste products, and the urinary system produces and stores it. following parts of the body which includes in it-

  • The kidneys are a pair of tiny glands that are situated above the hips on the back of the body. Kidney through waste from your circulation. This debris turns into urine.
  • Ureters: Urine is transported from the kidneys to the bladder by the ureters, which are small vessels.
    • Urine is stored in the bladder, a sac-like container before it exits the body.
  • The urethra is the tube that connects your bladder to the outside of your body to expel pee.

Epidemiology of UTI

People of all ages and genders are susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are prevalent health issues. When bacteria reach the urinary tract and grow there, an infection known as a UTI results.

The following are some essential UTI clinical facts:

  • Approximately 50–60% of women and 5–10% of men will each experience at least one UTI in their lifetimes, making women more prone than the men .
  • Pregnant women, postmenopausal women, and youthful, sexually active women are the groups most likely to develop UTIs.
  • The bacterium Escherichia coli is responsible for about 80% of UTIs. (E. coli).
  • The germs Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus are also capable of causing UTIs.
  • Sexual activity, the use of spermicides or diaphragms, pregnancy, menopause, urinary tract anomalies, catheterization, and a compromised immune system are all risk factors for UTIs.
  • Up to 30-40% of women will experience a second UTI within six months of the first, making recurrent UTIs a frequent occurrence.
  • Antibiotics are usually used to treat UTIs, and untreated UTIs can have serious side effects like kidney damage or sepsis.

UTIs are a major public health problem overall, causing discomfort and possibly life-threatening complications. To avoid complications and enhance outcomes for those suffering from UTIs, early detection and proper treatment are essential.

How often do urinary tract infections occur?

One in five women will experience a urinary tract infection at some point in their lives. UTIs are frequently experienced by women, but males, older people, and children can also get them. Children who get urinary tract illnesses range from 1 to 2%.


Not all UTIs result in symptoms. When they do, they might consist of:

  • An intense desire to urinate persists
  • A searing sensation during urination
  • passing small quantities of urine frequently
  • Clear-looking murky urine

Red, bright pink, or cola-coloured pee are indications that there is blood in the urine.

  • Pee that smells strongly
  • UTIs in older people may go unnoticed or be confused with other illnesses.

Variants of Urinary tract infection:

Different UTI types can cause different symptoms. Which portion of the urinary tract is impacted determines the symptoms.

Symptoms and warning signals based on the organ:


  • side or back discomfort
  • extreme temperature
  • shivers and trembling
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting


  • tummy pain
  • discomfort in the lower abdomen
  • painful and frequent peeing
  • Having blood in one's pee
  • Urination produces a burning discharge

The immune system, the body's defence against pathogens, can be weakened by other illnesses. This could make UTIs more likely.

using a catheter. Those who are unable to pee on their own frequently need to use a catheter. The danger of UTIs is increased when using a catheter.

Various Complications associated with UTI:

Lower urinary tract infections rarely result in complications when they are quickly and effectively treated. UTIs can, however, lead to severe health issues if they are not treated.

If you suspect a UTI, don't hesitate to see a healthcare provider

Among a UTI's potential complications are:

  • Repeated infections are when you experience two or more UTIs in six months or three or more in 12 months. Repeated infections are particularly common in women.
  • Damage to the kidneys that cannot be repaired because of an undiagnosed UTI.
  • Delivering a child who is underweight or preterm because of a pregnancy-related UTI.
  • A urethra that is narrowed in males as a result of recurrent urethral infections.
  • Sepsis is a possibly fatal infection-related complication. Particularly if the infection progresses up the urinary tract to the kidneys, this is a danger.

UTIs (Urinary Tract Infections) are infections that can occur anywhere in the urinary system, including the bladder, urethra, and kidneys. If left untreated , then following complications occur-

Kidney damage:

UTIs that involve the kidneys (pyelonephritis) can cause permanent damage  to our kidneys which later on converts to the chronic kidney disease .


In rare cases, UTIs can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition that occurs when our body's immune system working not properly.

Recurrent UTIs:

Some people are prone to getting UTIs, and recurrent infections can lead to further complications.

Scarring of the bladder:

Repeated UTIs can lead to scarring of the bladder, which can cause pain, discomfort, and difficulty urinating.

Pregnancy complications:

Pregnant women who develop UTIs are at increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight babies.

Urethral narrowing:

UTIs that involve the urethra can cause narrowing or stricture, through which urination can be difficult.

Increased risk of bladder cancer:

Chronic bladder infections may increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.

If you suspect that you have a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to avoid these and other potential complications.

How can you get UTI Diagnosed?

The below-given tests are used in the diagnosis:

  • Examination of a pee sample.
  • Urine samples are required by your doctors. During the lab, they investigate urine is analysed to search for bacteria, red blood cells, or white blood cells.
    • You might be instructed to gather the urine midstream after first wiping your genital region with an antiseptic pad. The procedure aids in avoiding data contamination.
  • Developing bacteria for the urinary system in a lab. A urine culture may come after a lab examination of the urine. This test identifies the bacteria that are causing the illness for your doctor. It may help your doctor decide which medicines are most likely to work.
  • Generating pictures of the urine system. An issue with the urinary tract's anatomical integrity may be the root of recurrent UTIs. To check for this problem, your doctor might request an ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Your urinary tract's components could be highlighted using a contrast dye.
  • Utilising a lens to view the bladder's interior. Your doctor might conduct a cystoscopy if you frequently get urinary tract infections. The test entails looking inside the urethra and bladder using a long, narrow tube with a lens called a cystoscope.
  • The urethra is used to enter the cystoscope, which is then passed through to the bladder.

What are the numerous Treatment Options available?

Typically, antibiotics are the first line of defence against urinary tract illnesses.

Commonly prescribed drugs for  UTIs include:

  • Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim (Bactrim, Bactrim DS)
  • Fosfomycin (Monurol)
  • Nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin, Macrobid, Furadantin)
  • Cephalexin
  • Ceftriaxone

If there are no other available treatments for a complicated UTI or kidney infection, your doctor may recommend a fluoroquinolone drug.

Frequently, UTI symptoms go away a few days after beginning treatment. The length of your antibiotic treatment, however, maybe a week or longer. Take the medication exactly as directed.

Your doctor might suggest a shorter period of treatment if you are suffering from  UTI and are otherwise healthy. This might entail using medication for one to three days. Depending on your symptoms and medical background, a brief course of treatment may be sufficient to cure your infection.

Your medical professional might also prescribe a painkiller for you to take to reduce heat while

If you experience UTIs frequently, your doctor might advise:

  • Medicines at low doses. They could be taken for up to six months.
  • Self-diagnosis and self-treatment of symptoms. Additionally, you'll be required to communicate with your supplier.
  • Taking a single antibiotic dose after sexual action if UTIs are caused by that.
  • Oestrogen therapy is delivered vaginally if you've achieved menopause.

What are the considerable lifestyle changes you may opt for?

Although urinary tract infections can be uncomfortable, there are measures you can take to reduce pain while waiting for antibiotics to work

The following is advised:

  • Take in a lot of liquids. Water aids in pee dilution and bacterial removal.
  • Stay away from beverages that could aggravate your stomach. Till the infection has gone away, stay away from coffee, alcohol, and soft beverages that contain citrus juice or caffeine.
  • They may aggravate your bladder and elevate your urogenital urge.
  • Invest in a heating cushion. To relieve bladder pressure or pain, place a warm pad on your abdomen which is tolerable to you.

Additional medical care:

Cranberry juice is frequently consumed to avoid UTIs. There is some evidence that cranberry products. The effectiveness of cranberry juice in preventing UTIs is still being researched, so conclusions cannot yet be drawn.

  • If you believe that drinking cranberry juice will help you avoid UTIs, go ahead, but watch the calories. Cranberry juice consumption is generally considered harmless. However, some individuals complain of diarrhoea or an upset stomach.
  • However, avoid cranberry juice if you're taking a blood thinner like warfarin. (Jantoven).

How can you prevent the occurrence of UTI?

These actions could aid in reducing the chance of UTIs:

  • Especially water, and drink a lot of beverages. Drinking enough water can prevent you from urinary tract infection .As a result, you urinate more frequently, which enables you to flush bacteria out of your urinary system before an infection develops.
  • From front to back, wipe. Does this follow a bowel discharge and urination? It aids in limiting the transfer of germs from the anus to the vagina and urethra .
  • In the hours following intercourse, empty your bladder. Additionally, chug a full container of water to help wash away bacteria.
  • Avoid feminine items that might irritate you. They can easily provide you with the infection . Sprays, powders, and douches are some of these items.
  • Change the way you pregnancy control. Bacterial development may be facilitated by diaphragms, unlubricated condoms, or condoms treated with spermicide.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common health issue that can cause discomfort and, if left untreated, lead to serious complications.

 There is no need to feel ashamed of having a UTI. Obtain the aid you require!